A frame is the actual edge of the video picture; the edge of the picture on all four sides. Framing a shot is the camera operator’s responsibility and involves placing items in the picture by operating the camera and tripod. Shooting a vase of flowers sitting on a table seems simple until you realize there are an infinite number of ways to shoot it (long shot, close-up, from a side angle, from below, from above, zoom in, or zoom out). A good camera operator has the ability to frame shots effectively for the audience.
We have all seen home movies taken of someone else’s family. Home movies are usually not tolerable to watch for long periods of time. ON e reason is camerawork; it is generally shaky and out of focus. An important production value is quality camerawork. Put the camera on a tripod for stability and frame the shots correctly. Make sure that people in the video do not have oddly cut off body parts.
Directing involves shaping the creative aspects of the program and interacting with the entire staff and cast to realize the director’s visualizations of the production. In addition to verbally providing direction during production, Many important pre- and post-production directing cavities contribute to a program’s success.
There is a convention in the video, film and television industries which assigns names and guidelines to common types of shots, framing and picture composition. The list below briefly describes the most common shot types (click the images for more details).
When planning the lighting for a production, there should be sufficient light to meet the technical requirements of the camera. Enough light should be installed to produce an acceptable picture on the screen. Various lighting techniques are also use d to meet the aesthetic requirements of the director. Accurate lighting in a program is necessary to create the desired mood, appearance, and setting. Most importantly, placement of lighting instruments contributes to creating three-dimensionality on a flat television screen
There are dozens of different types of photography. Some areas require specialist knowledge (e.g. scientific photography), but almost all photography involves the same basic principles of obtaining a clear, focused image through a lens and onto the recording medium.
A critical part of the camera is the optical element, i.e. the lens. The role of the lens is to take incoming light rays and bend them to form a clear image on the recording medium. The structure of the lens determines how much the light is bent and the magnification of the resulting image. To understand photography, you need to understand lenses.
- Wide shot (WS)- used to establish the location or setting, sets the stage, and can also be used to introduce action, shows the whole scene, orientates the viewer
- Full shot (FS)- frame a person from head to toe or completely frame an object. A full shot is used either to establish or follow a character.
- Medium shot (MS)- frame a person from the waist up. A medium shot is used to provide new visual information or show a closer view of the action. It also adds visual variety in editing.
- Three quarter shot (3/4) – frame a person from the knees up. This shot is a variation between the medium and full shot and provides visual variety.
- Long shot (LS) – are full shots, but show the person at a greater distance.
- Head and shoulder shot (H & S) – frames a person from the chest up. The head and shoulders shot provides a closer view of a character and can be used as a listening or reaction shot. This is the standard framing for most interviews where there are two subjects engaged in conversation.
- Close-up (CU) – head shot, just above the shoulders. This shot is used to provide a more intimate view of a character or show expression. The close-up can also be used as a listening or reaction shot, or to show the details of an object.
- Extreme close-up (XCU) – frames a head shot from the tip of the chin to the middle of the forehead, or any other equivalent space on an object, animal, etc. This shot shows drama or tension in a character’s face or allows the viewer to see specific details on an object.
- Two shot (2-SHOT) – frames two people in a full shot. This can be expanded to include however many people are framed in the shot (three shot, four shot, etc.) 10. Medium shot (MED 2-SHOT) – frames two people in a medium shot and can be expanded to a medium three shot, four shot, etc.
- Rule of thirds – position the eyes about one third of the way from the top of the frame
- The eyes are the centre of attention in face shots.
- Headroom should be consistent for the same-sized shots.
- The closer the shot, the less headroom there will be; crop out the top of the head rather than the chin if cropping is necessary.
- Profile shots are flat on screen.
- Always give space in the direction of people’s looks and movement